Cumont's theories came in for severe criticism from John R. It receives no support from the Iranian material and is in fact in conflict with the ideas of that tradition as they are represented in the extant texts. Above all, it is a theoretical reconstruction which does not accord with the actual Roman iconography.
Gordon argued that Cumont severely distorted the available evidence by forcing the material to conform to his predetermined model of Zoroastrian origins. Gordon suggested that the theory of Persian origins was completely invalid and that the Mithraic mysteries in the West was an entirely new creation. A similar view has been expressed by Luther H.
Boyce states that "no satisfactory evidence has yet been adduced to show that, before Zoroaster, the concept of a supreme god existed among the Iranians, or that among them Mithra — or any other divinity — ever enjoyed a separate cult of his or her own outside either their ancient or their Zoroastrian pantheons. She also says that "the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary references to them.
Beck tells us that since the s scholars have generally rejected Cumont, but adds that recent theories about how Zoroastrianism was during the period BCE now make some new form of Cumont's east-west transfer possible.
This indeed is the main line of Mithraic scholarship, the Cumontian model which subsequent scholars accept, modify, or reject. For the transmission of Iranian doctrine from East to West, Cumont postulated a plausible, if hypothetical, intermediary: More problematic — and never properly addressed by Cumont or his successors — is how real-life Roman Mithraists subsequently maintained a quite complex and sophisticated Iranian theology behind an occidental facade.
Other than the images at Dura of the two 'magi' with scrolls, there is no direct and explicit evidence for the carriers of such doctrines. He also says that "the old Cumontian model of formation in, and diffusion from, Anatolia Beck theorizes that the cult was created in Rome, by a single founder who had some knowledge of both Greek and Oriental religion, but suggests that some of the ideas used may have passed through the Hellenistic kingdoms.
Firstly, because it looks again at Anatolia and Anatolians, and more importantly, because it hews back to the methodology first used by Cumont. Merkelbach suggests that its mysteries were essentially created by a particular person or persons  and created in a specific place, the city of Rome, by someone from an eastern province or border state who knew the Iranian myths in detail, which he wove into his new grades of initiation; but that he must have been Greek and Greek-speaking because he incorporated elements of Greek Platonism into it.
The myths, he suggests, were probably created in the milieu of the imperial bureaucracy, and for its members. Beck calls this "the most likely scenario" and states "Until now, Mithraism has generally been treated as if it somehow evolved Topsy -like from its Iranian precursor — a most implausible scenario once it is stated explicitly.
Hopfe notes that there are only three mithraea in Roman Syria , in contrast to further west. Taking a different view from other modern scholars, Ulansey argues that the Mithraic mysteries began in the Greco-Roman world as a religious response to the discovery by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus of the astronomical phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes — a discovery that amounted to discovering that the entire cosmos was moving in a hitherto unknown way.
This new cosmic motion, he suggests, was seen by the founders of Mithraism as indicating the existence of a powerful new god capable of shifting the cosmic spheres and thereby controlling the universe.
Widengren have variously argued that Roman Mithraism represents a continuation of some form of Iranian Mithra worship. According to Antonia Tripolitis, Roman Mithraism originated in Vedic India and picked up many features of the cultures which it encountered in its westward journey. Michael Speidel, who specializes in military history, associates Mithras with the Sun god Orion.
The first important expansion of the mysteries in the Empire seems to have happened quite quickly, late in the reign of Antoninus Pius b.
By this time all the key elements of the mysteries were in place.
Mithraism reached the apogee of its popularity during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, spreading at an "astonishing" rate at the same period when the worship of Sol Invictus was incorporated into the state-sponsored cults.
The historian Jacob Burckhardt writes:. Mithras is the guide of souls which he leads from the earthly life into which they had fallen back up to the light from which they issued It was not only from the religions and the wisdom of Orientals and Egyptians, even less from Christianity, that the notion that life on earth was merely a transition to a higher life was derived by the Romans.
Their own anguish and the awareness of senescence made it plain enough that earthly existence was all hardship and bitterness. Mithras-worship became one, and perhaps the most significant, of the religions of redemption in declining paganism. The religion and its followers faced persecution in the 4th century from Christianization , and Mithraism came to an end at some point between its last decade and the 5th century.
Ulansey states that "Mithraism declined with the rise to power of Christianity, until the beginning of the fifth century, when Christianity became strong enough to exterminate by force rival religions such as Mithraism. Mithraic sanctuaries were destroyed and religion was no longer a matter of personal choice. Clauss states that inscriptions show Mithras as one of the cults listed on inscriptions by Roman senators who had not converted to Christianity, as part of the "pagan revival" among the elite in the second half of the 4th century.
In particular, large numbers of votive coins deposited by worshippers have been recovered at the Mithraeum at Pons Sarravi Sarrebourg in Gallia Belgica, in a series that runs from Gallienus r. These were scattered over the floor when the mithraeum was destroyed, as Christians apparently regarded the coins as polluted; therefore, providing reliable dates for the functioning of the mithraeum up until near the end of the century.
However, in areas like the Rhine frontier, barbarian invasions may have also played a role in the end of Mithraism. At some of the mithraeums that have been found below churches, such as the Santa Prisca Mithraeum and the San Clemente Mithraeum, the ground plan of the church above was made in a way to symbolize Christianity's domination of Mithraism.
Isis was still remembered in the Middle Ages as a pagan deity, but Mithras was already forgotten in late antiquity. According to Cumont, the imagery of the tauroctony was a Graeco-Roman representation of an event in Zoroastrian cosmogony described in a 9th-century Zoroastrian text, the Bundahishn.
In this text the evil spirit Ahriman not Mithra slays the primordial creature Gavaevodata , which is represented as a bovine. But according to Hinnells, no such variant of the myth is known, and that this is merely speculation: David Ulansey finds astronomical evidence from the mithraeum itself.
Beck has given the following celestial anatomy of the Tauroctony: Several celestial identities for the Tauroctonous Mithras TM himself have been proposed. Beck summarizes them in the table below. Ulansey has proposed that Mithras seems to have been derived from the constellation of Perseus , which is positioned just above Taurus in the night sky.
He sees iconographic and mythological parallels between the two figures: He also mentions the similarity of the image of Perseus killing the Gorgon and the tauroctony, both figures being associated with underground caverns and both having connections to Persia as further evidence.
Michael Speidel associates Mithras with the constellation of Orion because of the proximity to Taurus, and the consistent nature of the depiction of the figure as having wide shoulders, a garment flared at the hem, and narrowed at the waist with a belt, thus taking on the form of the constellation.
Beck has criticized Speidel and Ulansey of adherence to a literal cartographic logic, describing their theories as a "will-o'-the-wisp" that "lured them down a false trail". Rather than seeing Mithras as a constellation, Beck argues that Mithras is the prime traveller on the celestial stage represented by the other symbols of the scene , the Unconquered Sun moving through the constellations.
The cult of Mithras was part of the syncretic nature of ancient Roman religion. Almost all Mithraea contain statues dedicated to gods of other cults, and it is common to find inscriptions dedicated to Mithras in other sanctuaries, especially those of Jupiter Dolichenus.
Early Christian apologists noted similarities between Mithraic and Christian rituals, but nonetheless took an extremely negative view of Mithraism: He described these rites as a diabolical counterfeit of the baptism and chrismation of Christians. Wherefore also the evil demons in mimicry have handed down that the same thing should be done in the Mysteries of Mithras.
For that bread and a cup of water are in these mysteries set before the initiate with certain speeches you either know or can learn.
Ernest Renan suggested in that, under different circumstances, Mithraism might have risen to the prominence of modern-day Christianity. Leonard Boyle wrote in that "too much Alvar Ezquerra holds that since the two religions did not share similar aims, there was never any real threat of Mithraism taking over the Roman world.
According to Mary Boyce, Mithraism was a potent enemy for Christianity in the West, though she is sceptical about its hold in the East. Hopfe states that more than Mithraic sites have been found. These sites are spread all over the Roman empire from places as far as Dura Europos in the east, and England in the west. He, too, says that Mithraism may have been a rival of Christianity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mithras disambiguation. Not to be confused with Mithridatism. Mithras rising from the rock National Museum of Romanian History. Mithras born from the rock c. Mithras in comparison with other belief systems. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition.
The term "Mithraism" is of course a modern coinage. In antiquity the cult was known as "the mysteries of Mithras"; alternatively, as "the mysteries of the Persians. The Mithraists, who were manifestly not Persians in any ethnic sense, thought of themselves as cultic "Persians.
Select Passages Illustrating Mithraism Retrieved 28 March Porphyry moreover seems to be the only writer who makes reference to women initiates into the service and rites of Mithra, and his allusion is perhaps due to a misunderstanding The participation of women in the ritual was not unknown in the Eastern cults, but the predominant military influence in Mithraism seems to render it unlikely in this instance.
Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras , p. Neil Richardson , Eisenbrauns , pp. Archaeological evidence of Mithraism in Syria is therefore in marked contrast to the abundance of Mithraea and materials that have been located in the rest of the Roman Empire.
Both the frequency and the quality of Mithraic materials is greater in the rest of the empire. Even on the western frontier in Britain , archaeology has produced rich Mithraic materials, such as those found at Walbrook. Instead, archaeology indicates that Roman Mithraism had its epicenter in Rome.
Wherever its ultimate place of origin may have been, the fully developed religion known as Mithraism seems to have begun in Rome and been carried to Syria by soldiers and merchants.
None of the Mithraic materials or temples in Roman Syria except the Commagene sculpture bears any date earlier than the late first or early second century. While little can be proved from silence, it seems that the relative lack of archaeological evidence from Roman Syria would argue against the traditional theories for the origins of Mithraism.
Retrieved 19 March Today more than four hundred locations of Mithraic worship have been identified in every area of the Roman Empire. Mithraea have been found as far west as Britain and as far east as Dura Europas. Between the second and fourth centuries C.
Mithraism may have vied with Christianity for domination of the Roman world. Collected Works With New Essays. However, the cult was vigorously opposed by Christian polemicists, especially by Justin and Tertullian, because of perceived similarities between it and early Christianity.
And with the anti-pagan decrees of the Christian emperor Theodosius during the final decade of the fourth century, Mithraism disappeared from the history of religions as a viable religious practice. Retrieved 4 June We know a good deal about them because archaeology has disinterred many meeting places together with numerous artifacts and representations of the cult myth, mostly in the form of relief sculpture.
The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and his Mysteries.
Retrieved 20 March A useful topographic survey, with map, by F. Principally from comparisons of size and population with Ostia, Coarelli calculates that there will have been in Rome "not less than —" mithraea in all Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries.
However, in the absence of any ancient explanations of its meaning, Mithraic iconography has proven to be exceptionally difficult to decipher. Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies. Archived from the original on It is a place where researchers on Roman Mithraism can publish the product of their research and make it freely available for other interested people.
Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition,. For most of the twentieth century the major problem addressed by scholarship on both Roman Mithraism and the Iranian god Mithra was the question of continuity. Mithra is the next most important deity and may even have occupied a position of near equality with Ahura Mazde.
He was associated with the Sun, and in time the name Mithra became a common word for "Sun". Mithra functioned preeminently in the ethical sphere; he was the god of the covenant, who oversaw all solemn agreements that people made among themselves In later times Mithra gave his name to Mithraism , a mystery religion.
Journal of Mithraic Studies II: But it is probable that Euboulus and Pallas at least used the name 'Mithra' as an indeclinable [foreign word] ap. Porphyry, De abstinentia II. Greek hero and Roman army god. India's sacred literature refers to him since the hymns of the Rig Veda. But it was in Iran where Mithras rose to the greatest prominence: The cults of the Roman Empire.
The name Mithras comes from a root mei- which implies the idea of exchange , accompanied by an instrumental suffix. We find him invoked with Varuna in an agreement concluded c. It is the earliest evidence of Mithras in Asia Minor. L'Erma di Bretschneider, p.
Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman rule, Part 1. The theory that the complex iconography of the characteristic monuments of which the oldest belong to the second century A.
Nevertheless, as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance; and the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary reference to them. The Roman cult of Mithras , p. Archived from the original PDF on The god's right leg, appearing on the left as one faces the tauroctony, is nearly always straight as it pins the bull's hoof to the ground, while his left leg, which is usually resting on the back or flank of the bull, is bent at the knee with his foot often partially obscured beneath the folds of his tunic.
Anyone familiar with the cult's iconography will immediately recognize this awkward and possibly unnatural posture as a typical or even essential aspect of the tauroctony. The remarkable consistency of this particular feature is underscored by comparison with the subtle variability of others An image search for tauroctony will show many examples of the variations.
He is wearing a Phrygian cap and a wind-filled cloak, and, most remarkable of all, his head is turned in the other direction as if he would not look at his own deed. Still, this sacrifice is a guarantee of salvation for the participants. Hinnells, "The Iconography of Cautes and Cautopates: See also William W. The composition of the Mithraic cult icon".
Hic locus est felix, sanctus, piusque benignus: The figure of Mithras himself is usually attired in an oriental costume of Phrygian cap, tunica manicata a long-sleeved tunic , anaxyrides eastern style trousers , and a cape, though in some cases, he is depicted heroically nude or even, in a unique example from Ostia, in what seems to be a Greek chiton.
Like the general trend in Graeco-Roman art, most if not all tauroctony scenes, regardless of the medium they were executed in, were painted, and the different items of Mithras' clothing was usually colored in either blue or red, often, as in the painting at Marino, with most of the costume in red with only the inside of the cape being blue and star-speckled.
The bull was often white, sometimes wearing the dorsuale, the Roman sacrificial band in reds or browns, while the torchbearers could be depicted in a variety of colors with reds and greens being the most common. The religious context of early Christianity: Retrieved 4 September The Religion of the Mithras cult in the Roman empire.
Often, the mithraeum was embellished elsewhere with secondary exemplars of the tauroctony, and there also seem to have been small portable versions, perhaps for private devotion. Mithras in the Tauroctony" in Beck on Mithraism: Collected works with new essays , p. Retrieved 4 October John R Hinnells, ed. Manchester University Press ND. According to some, the lion man is Aion Zurvan, or Kronos ; according to others, Ahriman.
Religious diversity in late antiquity. The statue is a representation of the Leo degree, internalized. Retrieved 3 April One should bear in mind that the Mithraic New Year began on Natalis Invicti , the birthday of their invincible god, i.
Zodiac Profile - Pisces Pisces: February 19 to March 21 Affirmation: Twelfth sign of the Zodiac - Self Symbol: The Fishes Positive Polarities: Dependent, Escapist, Self-pitying, Element: Jupiter and Neptune Triplicity: Last sign of the Water element Animals: Dolphin, Fish Astral Colors: Their gift seems to be the peculiar and sacred one of laying on of hands.
In this beautiful work their great desire to help often causes them to give too much, and consequently to deplete and injure themselves. The Full Moon is ruled by Venus retrograde applying to a conjunction with the Sun.
The return of Venus uniting with the Sun while retrograde is called the inferior conjunction as Venus aligns with the Sun on our interior side, in between the orbit of Earth with the Sun. The union of Venus retrograde with the Sun signals a fiery rebirth of Venus, seeding a new cycle of Venus in its Morning Star phase which will come in November.
As the inferior conjunction of Venus occurs two days after the Full Moon on October 26, it means that Venus is being purified and cleansed at the end of its cycle as the Moon peaks in light, a phase we can also liken to finishing a process of putrefaction that ultimately brings fertility and new blooms of growth. The last time Venus was reborn in union with the Sun was on 9 January at its superior conjunction when Venus was direct and on the other side of the Sun in orbit.
The last time there was an inferior conjunction of Venus retrograde, however, was 25 March at five degrees of Aries. Some may note a deepening of the personal narrative being developed at those previous dates as Venus now re-enters the heart of the Sun, whereas others may realize how vastly different their relationships are now from those past dates of the previous Venus cycle; the common ground is that the current transit of Venus can bring deeper reflection upon the arc of storylines developed since then, and intimations of new growth coming.
Dimensione naturale Giordania Viaggiare in Giordania Giordania: Questo sito utilizza i cookie che consentono di migliorare l'esperienza di navigazione. There have been many attempts to interpret this material. Your inspiration might come from sitting down at your desk with a poem you freestyle, then ripping it up and putting it back together again. Zoroastrismo e Cristianesimo, Iran del Nord Iran Though conflicts may intensify, the deeper meaning of the Jupiter and Neptune cycle indicates that the repercussions from the discord will bring the disillusionment needed to reorient beliefs around new knowledge gained from the experience.
When Venus forms its conjunction with the Sun on October 26, within its solar regeneration its Venusian significations can be strengthened during the time of the union. Since Venus will continue to be retrograde until November 16, however, the fiery rebirth of Venus serves best as a time of internal illumination at the dead center of the Venus retrograde transit that began October 5.
Venus will still be invisible until the beginning of November when she will emerge again as a Morning Star heralding dawn, and similarly its more likely Venus will only then bring light to our own awareness of the Venusian shifts presently brewing.
As this is a time of working with Spirit, the spirits of relationships no longer with us as well as ancestors will be an additional source of guidance.
Amplifying perceptions, Mercury and Jupiter are co-present with the Sun and Venus in Scorpio with Mercury applying toward a conjunction with Jupiter that will become exact on October Moreover, on October 26 when Venus retrograde unites with the Sun there is also an opposition formed by the Moon in Taurus in polarity to the conjoining of Mercury and Jupiter in Scorpio.
Our experience of Jupiter in Scorpio is almost complete, and the week following the Full Moon ramps up the penetrative intensity needed for a final lesson.
Mercury during its union with Jupiter is twinkling as an Evening Star in twilight, in Scorpio in a place to foster curious questioning and deep digestion of whatever emotional and relational experiences coincide with a dive into Scorpio during the final days of October.
Mercury and Jupiter together in Scorpio bring extrasensory perception beyond words, and we may need to wait until the beginning of November when Venus has moved into Libra and Mercury has moved into Sagittarius in order to communicate clearer about our changing state. The presence of Mercury and Jupiter in Scorpio as Venus is reborn signifies that even amidst difficult experiences of strife that growth and wisdom can be eventually cultivated.
An immense shift in astrological atmosphere comes in November as the Moon wanes in light, including a remedy of the lack of fire signs being occupied at the Taurus Full Moon. The first change comes on October 31 when Mercury enters Sagittarius and Venus moves back into Libra.
Next Uranus will move back into Aries on November 6 on the same day that the true nodes of the Moon leave Aquarius and Leo and enter Capricorn and Cancer.
A day later comes the New Moon in Scorpio on November 7, followed by a major driver of change: With so many changes happening we can predict this will be a period of accelerated shifts, with some elements breaking down to be released completely while other parts of our life experience rapid growth.
In particular Mercury and Jupiter entering Sagittarius will be a welcome warming of inspiration to respond as needed. As a result, it will be best to keep in mind that the events and insights experienced during the full light of the Taurus Moon are a precursor to greater change coming in November.
Yet the poverty stricken figures in front of the stained glass window of a cathedral suggest that resources can be found in even the most dire of circumstances, as charitable sources of sustenance can be found in communities.
Mercury rules the first face of Taurus, linking the commerce of Mercury with the fertile, earthy nature of the sign of the Bull. Mercury makes the connections we need for our livelihood, and in the first decan of Taurus we discover our capacity not only to gain enough resources for our own survival but to also contribute assistance to those in greater need.
Thus the threat of not having enough in the future inspires us to work hard and plan for how to not only gain enough resources for the moment but also to save for later times of need.
The Charites are the same as the three Graces you are most likely familiar with, commonly known as Splendor, Mirth, and Good Cheer, though various traditions have additional names as well as numbers for these charming, fertile beings.
As Venus is reborn in the days following the Taurus Full Moon, focusing on cultivating your inner agriculture of soul will align you with the good graces. While a cold wind blows across collective events as darkness increases, the inner light we nurture within our own darkness will become available to share with and inspire others.
The History, Astrology and Magic of the Decans. The Libra New Moon on October 8 brings us into the deepening of Fall in the northern hemisphere as the days darken and multicolored leaves descend from branches, and seeds buried under the earth pulsate with the promise of new life. The New Moon is in the home of Venus, and also takes us into an intensification of the forty day Venus retrograde period which began on October 5.
There is a Plutonic quality to the lunation, as the New Moon is applying to a catalytic square with Pluto in Capricorn. Initiatory, death bringing, regenerative themes of Pluto have been strong in the week before the New Moon as Pluto stationed direct on September 30 and now begins to slowly crawl forward on course to eventually enter new zodiacal terrain.
As Venus stationed retrograde on October 5 less than a week after Pluto, it is as if Pluto cleared a path underground for Venus to dig into during her retrograde through Scorpio.
Since Venus retrograde in Scorpio rules the Libra New Moon, and Venus retrograde is also being received by Mars in Aquarius in a change inducing square aspect, the New Moon in Libra is a calling to re-center within whatever changes and strong feelings have been triggered in the past week with the stationing of Venus.
Venus retrograde has a different way of working towards Venusian themes of harmony, value, and attraction than when Venus is direct. One way to think about the difference is that Venus becomes more intolerant of whatever is oppressive or working against harmony rather than being accepting or attempting to mediate compromise.
Especially with Venus retrograde in the fixed, deep waters of Scorpio, previously hidden or denied emotions and issues within relationships will rise to the surface and demand awareness and renegotiation.
The Libra quality of the New Moon can hopefully help with listening within as well as to others so we may begin to rebalance and shift in whatever way needed. There is also a shedding of Venus that occurs, a process that will become more intense in a couple of weeks as Venus begins to approach its conjunction with the Sun on October 26 and experiences a purifying burning away of accumulated material.
Since Venus is retrograde in the home of Mars, and Venus is applying to a square aspect with Mars in Aquarius, the shedding process at the New Moon becomes accelerated and in the week following the New Moon it will become obvious whatever issues are being brought to the surface in correspondence with Venus retrograde. We can set intentions at the New Moon, but due to the square between Mars and Venus we will also be forced to deal with and respond to circumstances and themes that will be deepening in meaning as the Venus retrograde process develops through the next month.
The airy quality of Mars in Aquarius that is capable of detaching at times from feelings in order to catalyze needed growth can be helpful in grasping a larger vision of the bigger picture within which we are feeling difficult emotions in the moment. The deep emotions of Venus retrograde in Scorpio can be overwhelming, yet ultimately regenerative through bringing forth a cleansing purge.
In the wake of what we release, the visionary capacity of Mars in Aquarius can help us push forward into new areas of growth and development. Persephone opening the Liknon Mystikon, found in the shrine of Persephone at Locri. Venus retrograde has a tradition of being associated with an underworld journey for the Star of Aphrodite, and with Pluto having stationed in the same week as Venus, it brings to mind the story of Persephone who was pulled into the underworld by Hades in order to become a Queen mediating between realms of the living and dead.
All of these aspects connect with the Persephone myth, including the fact that Mercury is at the final degree of Libra at the New Moon on the threshold of entering Scorpio and uniting with Venus retrograde in the following week Hermes was sent by Zeus to bring Persephone back to her mother Demeter aka Ceres.
Her innocent, purely spiritual state is shattered by her violent pull into the underworld of death, yet ultimately on the other side Persephone discovers a powerful underworld role of mediation and rulership to embody.
We all must reconcile ourselves to living in a world of great suffering and death, and with Venus retrograde in Scorpio will be feeling things intensely, yet on the other side of Venus retrograde we may discover newfound power and strength within ourselves in spite of the wounds we must bear.
This…is the key to the true artist, who seeks to manifest the infinite beauty of spirit in finite matter. Most human beings have arrived at some kind of stasis in their relationship with the world which could, and often does for awhile, pacify the deep-seated urge to rediscover their spiritual nature.
To start out on the mystical path of initiation is to put at risk our mundane contentment for the sake of something unknown, and possibly frightening.
The New Moon in Libra conjoining Ceres also draws attention to the immense grief and trauma experienced by the Earth Mother in losing her daughter to the invisible underworld, and Ceres in Libra will be continuing to play a pivotal role in the enfoldment of Venus retrograde.
Ceres in part symbolizes the need for grief and expressing rage against the injustices and oppression of our world, releasing the emotions felt when experiencing death or loss.
Ultimately after securing the return of her daughter for part of the year, Ceres brought the gifts of corn and the mystery rites to humanity.
Though she endured traumatic wounds she would have to continue to bear and nurture, Ceres managed to bring a source of physical nourishment and profound spiritual understanding to the greater collective. The Libra New Moon conjoining Ceres similarly signals a month of needing to nurture past wounds, hurts, and vulnerabilities, while at the same time reaching out to others in need with warmth, support, and heartfelt action.
There are numerous astrological transits coming at the end of October through November signifying immense change that could dramatically change current narratives, beginning with the coming Full Moon in Taurus on October Mercury is co-present with the lunation at the final degree of Libra and then enters Scorpio the next day on October 9, with the newly waxing Moon joining Mercury later the same night.
The Moon and Mercury upon entering Scorpio immediately begin applying to an opposition with Uranus in Taurus , while also becoming co-present in the sign of the Scorpion along with Jupiter and Venus retrograde.
Simultaneously the Moon and Mercury begin moving toward a catalytic square aspect received by Mars in Aquarius. Mercury is still invisible under the beams of the Sun these days and in Scorpio is able to penetrate and investigate previously hidden areas.
The opposition between Venus retrograde in Scorpio with Uranus in Taurus is the dominant astrological theme of October, and so the contact between Mercury and Uranus can help us adjust to whatever is beginning to come into our life in correspondence.
With Uranus involved not only can this be something unexpected, but something that changes everything quickly. A week after the Libra New Moon around October 15, Mercury in Scorpio will unite with Venus retrograde and further deepen our perception into whatever is brewing and arising from underworld realms.
This union between Mercury and Venus retrograde is particularly notable because it happens just after Mercury has ascended again into visibility as an Evening Star, and just as Venus is descending into no longer being visible as an Evening Star. During Venus retrograde periods we always experience Venus descending from being an Evening Star into an invisible underworld phase that ultimately leads into it arising again as a visible Morning Star heralding dawn.
As a result Mercury is playing an instrumental role in transitioning us into this more secretive, subconscious, underworld period of the Venus retrograde transit. Furthermore, as the Moon waxes toward fullness in the next couple of weeks Mercury will also be moving toward an eventual union with Jupiter in Scorpio that will occur just after the Full Moon in Taurus on October 24 and the inferior conjunction of Venus with the Sun on October These are the final lessons for us to learn from the time of Jupiter in Scorpio that began 10 October Saturn rules the second face of Libra, and in the piercing heartbreak and cold atmosphere of the image we can observe the transcendence through pain that can be brought by Saturn.
In times of heartbreak we can access a newfound strength that can then increase our capacity to return to our love, as well as opens us to greater levels of empathy, compassion, and awareness of those around us. The piercing of the heart by swords is also resonant with the current Venus retrograde occurring in Scorpio, the nocturnal home of Mars, with Venus also applying to a hard aspect with Mars at the time of the New Moon.
Venus retrograde periods can coincide with new attractions and desires for change within relationship, or feelings of needing to change the balance of a relational dynamic. The influence of the second decan of Libra focuses attention on the importance of taking responsibility for clear communication and acting from integrity so as not to destroy the bonds of current relationships should desire for change occur.
Kairos in Greek myth was the youngest son of Zeus as well as the lover of Fortuna, an embodiment of luck and favorable opportunities. Kairos was portrayed as moving with winged feet, carrying a razor or scales that represent the fleeting moment in which opportunity comes and goes, the moment we need to seize and not neglect.
While its comforting to believe we can always use our free will to create the reality we wish to live within, it usually takes an opportune moment of kairos arising that we may then seize to make the desired change. The next two months are full of change inducing astrological transits, and while difficult feelings may emerge in correspondence, so may opportunities arise to fundamentally alter our life.
It will be a deep sea change, so keep an eye alert for favorable winds to catch sail with. Check the full schedule here. I will be speaking Saturday, May 25 at 3: Venus and Mercury form a polarity of exaltation and fall along the Pisces and Virgo axis, with Venus being exalted in Pisces and in fall in Virgo, and Mercury being exalted in Virgo and in fall in Pisces.
What meaning can be found in the fall of Venus in Virgo and Mercury in Pisces? This talk will imaginally explore the nuances of Venus and Mercury in their fall through the telling of the tale Psyche and Eros. I hope to see you there! To register and book a room at the hotel where the conference will be held, go to norwac.
The Aries Full Moon occurs two days after the Libra Equinox, the turn toward the deepening darkness of Fall in the northern hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere experiences the fecund flowering of Spring. In the northern hemisphere, the colorful changes in Autumnal leaves correlate with crisp awareness into our changing circumstances and distilling the resources we may cultivate to endure the darkness which will increase with each subsequent dawn.
In myth we associate this time with Persephone returning to her role ruling the underworld, mythic symbolism that is an apt metaphor for the shedding and intensification supported by the astrology the Full Moon is embedded within. The scythe of Saturn glows in the silvery luminescence of the Harvest Moon, its blade severing us from whatever is ready to be shed, its cut cleanly delivering a harvest of resources ripened for gathering.
The past season was full of volatile, catalytic astrology transits, the type of transits that often correlate with monumental changes in relationships and the roles we embody in the world. Saturn in Capricorn can be a severe taskmaster, yet will bring reward and approval for hard work and consistent effort. Saturn has been in Capricorn now for three quarters of a year, with the Aries Full Moon illuminating whatever has been working well or is need of new strategies and modification.
Chiron re-enters Pisces a day after the Full Moon where it will stay until it returns to Aries for good on 18 February Within the dark caverns of our innermost recesses, Chiron is holding a lantern spotlighting a strength and talent we may resiliently rely upon in the season ahead.
Ultimately, Chiron in Aries calls us to courageously fight for our ideals within not only personal spheres but within the wider collective, being willing to resist forces of oppression and totalitarian influence.
Yet the dominant role played by Saturn in Capricorn in relation to Chiron and the Full Moon means containment is a necessary element. The influence of Chiron and Saturn calls for disciplined effort focused with precision upon the realistic confines of our circumstances; this does not mean restraining oneself from expansive, freedom-oriented goals but rather pinpointing whatever most needs attention in the moment.
Mars in Aquarius first applied toward a conjunction with the South Node of the Moon in the first week of June, coming into contact a second time during the catalytic time period of the Total Lunar Eclipse in Aquarius that occurred on July As a result the Aries Full Moon brings closure to narratives that have been developing during the past four months and an opportunity for decisive action and choices in correspondence.
Mars in Aquarius uniting with the South Node of the Moon purifies and hones our idealistic concerns for our greater global collective, as well as efforts we desire to initiate within local community. Aquarius is a visionary placement for Mars that can be future-oriented, yet its unbound desires for greater freedom have had to be tempered through the numerous martial tests we have had to face during the past few months of Mars shifting between retrograde and direct motion.
Mars completing its final conjunction with the South Node takes on a sobering presence, and in correspondence we can make difficult choices we held back from enacting previously. In combination with the additional influences of Saturn and Chiron upon the lunation, a wholistic awareness that takes account of subconscious influences will be a necessity for effective action and results.
This is not a lunation for dreamy, overidealistic envisioning of potential but rather a stark assessment of circumstances combined with willingness to do whatever we must do to find solutions and initiate needed change.
The trials and difficulties we need to work through will bring unconscious motivations to the surface. Mars in Aquarius is also in a harmonious, airy trine with the Sun, Mercury and Ceres which are co-present in Libra, with Mercury applying to a conjunction with Ceres.
Altogether these aspects point to support found in community, to the importance of reaching out to others who may bring support and needed insight. Deep, mutually introspective communication can be supported as long as those engaged in dialogue are willing to claim responsibility and sustain willingness to listen even when in disagreement.
Unfortunately, due to the influence of Saturn and Chiron upon the Full Moon there is also potential for harsh and wounding communication.
Certain relationships may emerge that can be particularly supportive in the changes coming in the next month with Venus stationing retrograde. Pluto is one of the strongest influences upon the Aries Full Moon, as Pluto will station direct in Capricorn on September 30, less than a week after the Full Moon.
Furthermore, as the Moon in full phase begins to separate from its square aspect with Saturn, it will begin to form a square with the stationing Pluto, further dredging up the deep desires of Pluto. Thus those with cardinal placements Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn between 16 — 22 degrees will feel the plutonic shift most intensely.
As strong, compulsive feelings are likely to emerge that were previously hidden or inaccessible, the week following the Aries Full Moon has the potential to facilitate an integration of powerful self realization. During the waning half of the lunar cycle, Venus will station retrograde in Scorpio on October 5 a few days before a New Moon in Libra on October 8.
With the Sun, Mercury, Ceres, and Uranus all in the domiciles of Venus, the stationing of Venus holds wide influence over the surrounding astrology. At the time of the Aries Full Moon, however, Venus remains a bright Evening Star and in combination with Mars in Aquarius and Saturn in Capricorn can be supportive in beginning to make adjustments and reorientation to the changes we can sense are on the horizon with the impending forty day period of Venus retrograde.
The image involves a conquering figure holding a globe in one hand as he gazes from a protective castle into an expansive terrain. It is the body of water that appears to have secured his focus in this moment, and the presence of the globe seems to imply a moment of reflection regarding expanding his influence or dominion.
The grandiose ambition and confident assertion present in the image is fitting considering that Mars rules the first decan of Aries, giving Mars both domicile and face rulership over the Aries Full Moon. Humor and the release of tension that comes from laughter is always needed medicine during pivotal times, and as we know it is often the one playing the part of the fool who can claim a platform to speak truth to power.
Virgo is a mutable sign of seasonal transition, as in the northern hemisphere we shift from Summer into Fall, while in the southern hemisphere we complete Winter in turn for Spring. The New Moon in Virgo on September 9 similarly serves as a bridge between distinct astrological seasons.
Previously, we experienced a volatile series of eclipses with numerous planets in retrograde, most notably Mars and Mercury. Now within the darkness of the Virgo New Moon we are experiencing the gravitas of Saturn having stationed direct a few days before the syzygy, bringing us into a lunar cycle ideal for generating forward momentum and taking care of whatever responsibilities need our attention following a season of volatility.
Within a month, however, Venus will station retrograde and by the time the star of Aphrodite has completed her backward motion in November we will also have experienced the lunar nodes moving into Cancer and Capricorn, Uranus moving back into Aries, and Jupiter entering its domicile of Sagittarius.
The Virgo New Moon thus connects two distinct periods of change inducing astrological influences. Yet the Virgo New Moon is separating from an opposition with Neptune in Pisces, an aspect which lends itself more so to simply enjoying the presence of being rather than diligently taking care of work details. As I wrote about recently, the planetary nodes of Neptune were strongly activated in recent months, and transiting Neptune in Pisces has likewise been an important influence.
If we have been able to take time for imaginal exploration of whatever we most want to bring into the world, the Virgo New Moon is perfect for discerning choices and following through on action for development. The Virgo New Moon is full of resilient, visionary aspects as it is applying to a harmonious sextile with Jupiter in Scorpio and an empowering trine with Pluto in Capricorn.
Rather than being lost in a cloud of Neptunian fog, the Virgo New Moon can aid in recovering from disillusionment with the state of the world in order to invest energy in our own personal projects or in helping others in collective efforts toward the greater needs of our surrounding community.
Mercury rules the New Moon from its home and exaltation of Virgo, separating from an earth triangle with Saturn in Capricorn and Uranus in Taurus. Mercury is experiencing a phase change during the New Moon, heading under the beams of the Sun and disappearing from view on its way toward a union with the Sun in Virgo on September This means we have come to the end of the synodic cycle of Mercury that began with its superior conjunction on June 5, which was interestingly in square to Neptune in Pisces.
With the ruler of the New Moon at home in Virgo, it amplifies the potential of the New Moon to help us recover and move forward from all of the change that has occurred since the beginning of June.
Mercury in Virgo is ideal for analysis, organization, and clarifying decision making. On September 13 Mercury will form an opposition to Neptune in Pisces, then on September 15 Mercury will form a trine with Pluto in Capricorn, and then on September 16 Mercury will form a sextile with Jupiter in Scorpio.
All of this will occur in the build-up not only to the superior conjunction of Mercury on September 20, but also to the Aries Full Moon on September Thus during the week of September 13 through the 20 we can experience a manifestation or significant development toward whatever we set in motion at the Virgo New Moon.
One of the most significant elements of the Virgo New Moon is the entrance of Venus into Scorpio that coincides with the lunation. One reason is that as soon as Venus enters Scorpio, it instantly begins to tightly form an opposition with Uranus in Taurus. The tension of the polarity between Uranus and Venus is somewhat mitigated due to Venus receiving Uranus, but it is likely to coincide with sudden and rapid developments in associated areas of life for example whatever places in your natal chart are occupied by Scorpio and Taurus.
Most importantly, this is the first of three oppositions that will be formed by Venus and Uranus in the coming months. This is due to the fact that after Venus completes the opposition with Uranus on September 12, it will be slowing down as it approaches its retrograde station on October 5 which will lead it to forming two more oppositions with Uranus on October 31 and November Thus more so than a temporary activation of Venus and Uranus, the Virgo New Moon launches us into an extended process of change we will not fully have understood until December.
For now, it will be helpful to begin taking note of whatever changes arise in storylines while also realizing we are only at the beginning of navigating the corresponding developments.
Venus remains a bright evening star during the night of the Virgo New Moon, so enjoy her luminescence as each subsequent evening she will be descending lower and lower during twilight as she approaches her retrograde in October when she will disappear from visibility.
Venus is also forming harmonious, pivotal aspects as not only is she opposing Uranus in Taurus, but also forming harmonious sextile aspects with both Saturn in Capricorn and Mercury in Virgo. In addition, Venus completed a catalytic square aspect with Mars the day before the New Moon on September 8, an aspect which stirred up all of the material that has been in a process of change over the course of the past few months.
Due to Venus stationing retrograde at the beginning of October, it means that Venus and Mars will form another exact square on October Therefore, similar to the opposition formed by Venus with Uranus, its square aspect with Mars also takes us into an extended process of change rather than a temporary impetus.
Mars returns to Aquarius on September 10, a day after the Virgo New Moon, meaning that it will basically be sustaining tension with Venus over the course of the next month. Mars will be approaching its final conjunction with the South Node of the Moon in Aquarius during the waxing cycle of the Moon, forming its exact conjunction with the South Node on September 25, a day after the Aries Full Moon.
Taking all of this into account, it means the lunar cycle we begin with the Virgo New Moon will not only bring significant developments, but also deeper understanding regarding whatever changes we have been experiencing, or however we have been feeling stuck or obstructed.
The forthcoming lunar cycle demands clear thinking bound with decisive action and a willingness to confront whatever is not working, devising solutions as needed. We will need the resilient desire of Venus in Scorpio that will penetrate to the depths of dilemmas, and with Jupiter co-present in Scorpio there is strength to be found in taking a stand and persisting in the face of opposition.
On her hand sits a bird of prey ready to strike out for resources, while ripening grapevines surround her. Coppock found a theme of continual reshaping and refinement of matter in this decan that unveils the diverse extremes of experiences that unite within the final form of a created work that contains spirit: These are the daughters of Necessity, the goddesses of fate: Clotho the spinner of the threads of life, Lachesis the measurer of fateful threads, and Atropos who cuts the threads.
These goddesses of fate appearing in this decan remind us to center within the actual currents of life so that choices can be discerned that will allow one to navigate accordingly. While there are many upsetting events occurring in collective events we cannot change, we do possess the inherent character to respond with responsible virtue rather than in a way that goes against the nature of our higher self.
The current shift toward a time of Venus retrograde will bring tests and events saturated with the feel of destiny, bringing forth deeper aspects of our Self and realizations of purpose and potential.
To paraphrase Carl Jung, free will is doing that which one must do. Webinar exploring the Venus retrograde in Libra and Scorpio that will occur between October 5 and November 16, Time will also be spent looking back at past Venus retrograde in Scorpio periods, as well as the background of the present synodic cycle of Venus we are experiencing. I will also provide a horoscope for how the Venus retrograde will impact all twelve signs of the zodiac.
This Venus retrograde is notable for involving multiple oppositions between Venus with Uranus, and in fact ends with Venus stationing direct in Libra in opposition to Uranus in Aries.
Overall it looks like a Venus retrograde that will more intense than normal in terms of deepening purpose in life, while also requiring us to navigate some disruptive changes.
The webinar will last about two and a half hours and will take place through Zoom meetings. You do not need to pay for an account with Zoom meetings to participate, but do need to download the free version on your device. Once I receive your payment I will email you a link to attend the webinar.
A video recording of the webinar will be sent to you afterwards so it is not necessary to attend live.